Tracking climate change and natural variability over time.
In 2021, the combined heating influence of all human-produced greenhouse gases was 49 percent higher than it was in 1990.
Since the start of the satellite era in 1979, the extent of ice covering the Arctic Ocean at the end of summer has shrunk by more than 40 percent.
The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has risen more than 45 percent since people began burning fossil fuels for energy. It hit a new high of 414.7 parts per million in 2021.
Averaged over the full depth of the ocean, the global ocean gained an estimated 0.58-0.78 watts of heat energy per square meter from 1993–2021, contributing to sea level rise, ice shelf retreat, and stress on coral reefs.
Sea level has risen between 8 and 9 inches since 1880. The rate of sea level rise more than doubled from 2006–2015 compared to the rate throughout most of the twentieth century.
Since 1967, spring snow cover has shrunk by 1.4 percent per decade in April, 4.1 percent per decade in May, and 12.9 percent per decade in June.
Global average surface temperature has risen 0.14 degrees Fahrenheit per decade since 1880. The rate of warming has more than doubled since 1981.
This index tracks coordinated shifts in air pressure and the jet stream between the Arctic and the mid-latitudes.
This index tracks changes in the relative strength of semi-permanent high and low pressure patterns that influence weather in the eastern U.S. and Europe.